Medical specialty: Nephrology
The most common diseases of nephrology are diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, vascular nephropathy and interstitial nephritis. Chronic renal insufficiency may lead to complications such as renal anemia and osteomalacia, which can only be treated by a nephrologist, since in such cases the renal replacement therapy, known as hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, is used to stabilize renal function.
Renal insufficiency is mostly treated by means of dialysis care and – if the condition is very serious – with kidney transplantation. In addition, a nephrologist must be able to treat acute renal failure on intensive care units.