Med­ical spe­cial­ty: Ne­phrol­ogy

Nephrology is an area within internal medicine and specializes in diseases of the kidney. The treatment spectrum of nephrologists includes hypertension, dysfunctions of the acid-base balance and water-electrolyte balance.

The most common diseases of nephrology are diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2, glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, vascular nephropathy and interstitial nephritis. Chronic renal insufficiency may lead to complications such as renal anemia and osteomalacia, which can only be treated by a nephrologist, since in such cases the renal replacement therapy, known as hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, is used to stabilize renal function.

Renal insufficiency is mostly treated by means of dialysis care and – if the condition is very serious – with kidney transplantation. In addition, a nephrologist must be able to treat acute renal failure on intensive care units.